It has been a topic in science-fiction for decades. Martians coming to invade Earth. But what if, reversely, we invaded Mars! There have been plans to colonizing Mars for years. However, there are many struggles and obstacles we must jump through before this is able to happen. If we were to set our sights on Mars, what would the adventure entail?
First, we should know what our intentions on the planet Mars are. Well, first of all, in the event of a terrible disaster, such as war, we need a place to preserve the human species. Because it is further away, it is more likely we would survive on Mars then the Moon. However, full scale settlements are far into the future. We would have to wait at least another century. For now, our mission is to actually land on the planet. Instead of a full coloney, we could also build science labs. Much like we did in Antarctica, people could come and go to do research, but not necessarily live there due to the conditions.
There are a few issues with these plans. First, in order to get there, humans would have to be subjected to radiation from cosmic rays that could destroy human cells and do who knows what to the body. There is no escape, they can even penetrate the hull of a spacecraft! Second, there is no oxygen. It’s impossible for humans to walk the surface of Mars freely. Furthermore, they would have to bring a nuclear reactor and each person would need at least 6 to 10 metric tons of consumable supplies. They can not find these resources for shelter or personal use on the planet.
While there might be downsides to the planet, there are also upsides! There are resources that can be of advantage to us such as dry ice, regular ice, and carbon dioxide, which we could use for an assortment of things. Also, much like the planet Earth, temperatures are not too drastic. Sunlight is abundant enough to use sun panels. Cosmic rays can not penetrate the atmosphere, even though it is very thin. The gravity is fairly similar to earth, making it easier to adapt to, as well!.
Lastly, where would the citizens live? Well, there's a mission called “Redwood Forest”. Redwood Forest is basically a series of domes filled with forest habitats. They would have a series of underground tunnels that connect them. The tunnels could be used as protection from meteor impacts, radiation, extreme temperature changes, and damage to domes.
Having said all this, the Mars mission is still in the works. There is much we need to learn and a lot we need to plan before an expedition out of this world. There are no guarantees the trip will even happen in our lifetime, but if it does, it will be interesting to follow the mission to Mars.
Eck, Allison. “Can We Colonize Mars?” PBS, Public Broadcasting Service, 16 Mar. 2018,
The actias luna, or luna moth, is a large, pale green moth. They are a common species found in Eastern North America. Their beauty has caught the attention of many.
First, we should explore what makes these moths so beautiful. Their wingspan averages at about 7.5-10.5 cm, which is about the length of a human hand! Their hindwings have “tails” trailing off the end. Each wing has a small eyespot. They have pink, reddish-purple, or orange wing margins depending on where they are from. The location they are in can also determine the shade of green they are. The males tend to be larger and more of a yellow-green, while females are more of a blue-green.
Luna moths also have interesting lives. They only mate in the couple of hours after midnight. Females lay eggs the following evening on host plants, which include about 11 different types of plants. After a week, the eggs hatch. The caterpillars are bright green with short white hairs. Full grown, they are about 55 to 70 mm in length. The caterpillar’s appearance, again, depends on where they are located. They spend most of their time eating. After about 3 weeks, the caterpillars will start to form a cocoon out of silk and leaves. Before doing so, they turn a reddish color. After another month, they cut their way out of the cocoon, males being freed first. When they emerge in the morning, they are a reddish color. After this, they spread out and start the process over again.
Another interesting fact about luna moths, they have no mouth! They only eat as a caterpillar. Having said that, the moths only survive for a week. They are also attracted by light. Man made lights can attract them, preventing them from mating and decreasing the population. The luna caterpillars fight off predators such as mice and ants by making threatening poses, clicking noises, and regurgitating fluid. The moths’ tails are thought to disturb the echolocation of bats, averting their attack.
These moths can be found most commonly from May-July in the South and March-September in the North. So if the time is right, go search for these magnificent creatures.
Why Marching Band is a Sport
Marching band is a sport. Many students, over 60 of the Owensville High School students, put their time, effort, and strength into marching band. The exact definition of a sport is “an athletic activity requiring skill or physical prowess and often of a competitive nature.” While marching band may not be similar to basketball, football, or wrestling, it still fits all of these requirements.
First of all, it is competitive. Marching bands travel to other schools to compete in competitions. Their goal is to get to finals or have the highest ranking in their conference. They have to be extra careful to not run into other students, memorize their routine, and play their instruments perfectly. At least five judges watch your every move, while even more watch from other angles. Things judges look for are marching in step, horn angles, uniformity, visual detail, musical accuracy, recognizable shapes, and even spacing.
Secondly, there is a lot of physical activity that goes into marching band. Each person has to carry a 20-40 pound instrument, all while walking, running, and performing moves in their routine. They all have to keep time while maneuvering and being perfectly in sync with their other band mates. They have specific spots they must reach on the field in the right amount of steps and time. Not to mention, color guard has another routine to memorise. They work hard to dance, toss flags, and move perfectly alongside their bandmates. They have to convey the routine’s story while twirling heavy, 6 foot poles, making it all look smooth and graceful.
Another thing, there is so much dedication put into marching band. The members rehearse everyday before school, and somedays after school. They practice outside in extreme temperatures. They work long and hard hours to be the best they can. They have to work on memorizing all of their music and moves, which is not an easy task. Some even work over the summer at camps! “We have tryouts and practices like any other sport and it requires a lot of physical activity and dedication,” says Shania Wilson, a former member of colorguard. The members love what they do, and pour their heart and soul into it.
Like Avery Kelley, a sophomore clarinet player, says, “If you were on that field, doing what we do, you would know how much of a sport it actually is.” The amount of dedication, physical activity, and time that goes into marching band proves it is a sport.
Bielewicz, Julia. “Is Marching Band a Sport?” The Register, The Register, 10 Oct. 2018,