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Birth Abnormalities Explained



About 25 to 40 percent of kids are born with Omphalocele. An Omphalocele is when your child is born with with their organs outside of his or her body. Two ways an Omphalocele can happen is when the abdominal cavity has not fully developed cavity and when the muscle in the abdominal cavity is not formed right.Omphalocele can be detected by an  ultrasound. Omphalocele can be treated in two ways, one way is to use a process called ¨Paint and Wait¨ and the other way is to have your child in surgery.

How does a Omphalocele happen?

An Omphalocele can happen in two ways. One of the ways is when the baby's abdominal cavity itself has not fully developed and would be smaller than normal. The second way is when the muscle in the wall of the abdominal cavity is not formed right. When either of the ways happen, it allows some of the organs to grow outside of the baby's belly button. The organs that are most likely to grow outside of the belly are the stomach, liver, and intestine.

How does an Omphalocele affect the baby?

An Omphalocele can affect the baby in a few ways. One of the ways are when the baby is born he or she has the possibility of having something else wrong. Another way is the abdominal cavity might be smaller than expected because it might not go back to the normal size. A third reason is sometimes an organ could become pinched or twisted. The final reason is when the organs are exiting the body, some of the organs could lose blood flow which would end up damaging the organs.

How is an Omphalocele diagnosed?

An Omphalocele can be diagnosed with an ultrasound. An ultrasound is a machine that uses sound and other vibrations to get a frequency so you can get a look at your baby. You will only be able to detect a Omphalocele in the second and third trimesters of a pregnancy. After your baby is born you and your doctor will see the organs outside of the baby's belly button. The organs will be covered in layers of the umbilical cord or known as the Omphalocele sac. The baby may have a small hole and a bulge of organs.

Can it be treated?

An Omphalocele  can be treated in two ways. One way is the ¨Paint and Wait¨ method and the other is surgery as soon as possible after birth. If you choose to have surgery the doctors will surgically put them back into place right after birth. Sometimes to get the organs surgically back into place is the best option. If you choose the ¨Paint and Wait¨ method the doctors will put antibiotic cream on the sac that covers up the OMphalocele. Over time the baby's skin will grow over the sca.This process my take several months.

Every 25 to 40 percent of children are born with Omphalocele. It happens by your child's abdominal cavity and the abdominal cavity´s wall´s muscle. Ways it affect the baby can also affect you and what you feed him or her and it can also affect people emotionally. In the second and third trimester you can detect you child's Omphalocele. An Omphalocele  can be treated in two ways. You can use the ¨Paint and Wait¨ system or you can have your child in surgery right after birth.






Encephalocele is a rare type of birth defect of the neural tube that affects the brain. The neural tube is a narrow channel that folds and closes during the third and fourth weeks of pregnancy to form the brain and spinal cord. Encephalocele is a sac-like protrusion or projection of the brain and the membranes that cover it through an opening in the skull. Encephalocele happens when the neural tube does not close completely during pregnancy. The result is an opening anywhere along the center of the skull from the nose to the back of the neck, but most often at the back of the head, at the top of the head, or between the forehead and the nose.

There is a genetic (inherited) component to the condition, meaning it often occurs in families that have family members with other defects of the neural tube: spina bifida and anencephaly. Some researchers also believe that certain environmental exposures before or during pregnancy might be causes, but more research is needed. CDC works with many other researchers to study factors that can increase the risk of having a baby with encephalocele, or impact the health outcomes of babies with encephalocele. The following is an example of what CDC researchers have found several factors appear to lead to lower survival rates for infants with encephalocele, including preterm (early) birth, low birthweight, having multiple birth defects. CDC continues to study birth defects, such as encephalocele, and how to prevent them. For example, taking 400 micrograms of the B vitamin, folic acid, every day before and during early pregnancy can help prevent some major birth defects of the baby’s brain and spine, such as encephalocele. If you are pregnant or thinking about becoming pregnant, talk with your doctor about ways to increase your chances of having a healthy baby.

Usually encephaloceles are found right after birth, but sometimes a small encephalocele in the nose and forehead region can go undetected. An encephalocele at the back of the skull is more likely to cause nervous system problems, as well as other brain and face defects. Signs of encephalocele can include buildup of too much fluid in the brain, Complete loss of strength in the arms and legs, an unusually small head, uncoordinated use of muscles needed for movement, such as those involved in walking and reaching, developmental delay, intellectual disability, vision problems, delayed growth, and seizures. Encephalocele is treated with surgery to place the protruding part of the brain and the membranes covering it back into the skull and close the opening in the skull. However, neurologic problems caused by the encephalocele will still be present. Long-term treatment depends on the child’s condition. Multiple surgeries may be needed, depending on the location of the encephalocele and the parts of the head and face that were affected by the encephalocele.






Anencephaly is a serious birth defect in which a baby is born without parts of the brain and skull. It is a type of neural tube defect (NTD). As the neural tube forms and closes, it helps form the baby’s brain and skull (upper part of the neural tube), spinal cord, and back bones (lower part of the neural tube). Anencephaly happens if the upper part of the neural tube does not close all the way. This often results in a baby being born without the front part of the brain (forebrain) and the thinking and coordinating part of the brain (cerebrum). The remaining parts of the brain are often not covered by bone or skin. CDC estimates that each year, about 3 pregnancies in every 10,000 in the United States will have Anencephaly. This means about 1,206 pregnancies are affected by these conditions each year in the United States.

The causes of Anencephaly among most infants are unknown. Some babies have Anencephaly because of a change in their genes or chromosomes. Anencephaly might also be caused by a combination of genes and other factors, such as the things the mother comes in contact with in the environment or what the mother eats or drinks, or certain medicines she uses during pregnancy. Getting enough folic acid before and during early pregnancy can help prevent neural tube defects, such as Anencephaly. If you are pregnant or could get pregnant, take 400 micrograms (mcg) of folic acid every day. If you have already had a pregnancy affected by an NTD, you can speak with your doctor about taking a higher dose of folic acid before pregnancy and during early pregnancy.

Most cases of Anencephaly are sporadic, which means they occur in people with no history of the disorder in their family. A small percentage of cases have been reported to run in families; however, the condition does not have a clear pattern of inheritance. For parents who have had a child with Anencephaly, the risk of having another affected child is increased compared with the risk in the general population. About one in nearly 5,000 babies is born with Anencephaly each year, according to the Centers for Disease Control. The exact number is not known because many pregnancies involving neural tube defects end in miscarriage. More female newborns have Anencephaly than males, possibly because of a higher rate of spontaneous abortions or stillbirths among male fetuses.